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Selasa, 07 Des 2016 - 10:14:09 Wib Involusi Pendidikan Guru Kategori : Umum - - Dibaca: 1518 kali Oleh : Administrator

KUALITAS guru merupakan faktor utama penentu keberhasilan fasilitasi pendidikan ialah hal yang tak terbantahkan. Hanya saja, dengan melihat kompetensi profesional dan pedagogis guru dalam hasil Uji Kompetensi Guru (UKG) 2015 dan sebelumnya UKG 2012, cita-cita tentang ketersediaan guru-guru yang sekadar layak untuk mengajar masih `jauh panggang dari api’.

Betapa tidak. Terlepas dari soal validitas atau reliabilitas terkait kedua UKG ini, nilai rata-rata hasil uji kompetensi guru secara nasional adalah di bawah 50 untuk skala nilai 0-100. Hasil ini dengan jelas menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar guru tidak menguasai materi ajar serta tidak mampu memfasilitasi pembelajaran. Selain kompetensi guru hanya salah satu komponen dari sebuah sistem pendidikan, penjelasan kuantitatif harus dilihat sebagai generalisasi—seperti puncak gunung es yang kecil ketika di bawahnya terdapat struktur yang lebih besar yang tak kasat mata.

Bagaimanakah dinamika pendidikan guru di Indonesia dan kenapa masalah inkompetensi ini bisa terjadi?

Belajar dari sejarah

Sekolah guru pertama di Indonesia adalah Kweekschool atau Pedagogische academie voor het basisonderwijs (Akademi Pedagogis untuk Pendidikan Dasar) yang didirikan sejak 1834. Pendirian sekolah guru ini didasari kebutuhan guru-guru yang bisa mendidik calon-calon pegawai rendahan bagi pemerintahan kolonial Belanda. Tujuan sistem pendidikan guru bersifat fungsional dan vokasional.

Seiring mulai menguatnya pengaruh Politik Etis dalam ranah pendidikan di Indonesia, tumbuh pula sekolahsekolah pribumi di awal abad ke-20 serta berkembangnya pendidikan Islam tradisional.

Pendidikan sebagai usaha liberasi itu melengkapi tujuan vokasional ala kolonialisme Belanda dan humanitarianisme Politik Etis.

Sistem pendidikan guru pribumi—yang sejak sebelum kemerdekaan dikembangkan organisasi-organisasi kemasyarakatan–memiliki warna tambahan. Sebagai contoh, Mu’allimin Muhammadiyah, yang berarti sekolah guru yang dikelola Muhammadiyah, memasukkan unsur ideologis dalam tujuan pendidikannya. Demikian juga halnya sekolah-sekolah yang dikelola Sarekat Islam, NU, dan organisasi lainnya.

Pascakemerdekaan, sistem pendidikan guru diwarnai dialektika antara konsep etis dan sistem pendidikan kolonial dengan dinamika sebuah negara baru: kebutuhan akan masifikasi pendidikan, pembangunan sistem pemerintahan dan ekonomi, serta pergumulan ideologis antara liberalisme, sosialisme, dan paham-paham keagamaan.

Dengan meneruskan konsep fungsional dari zaman kolonial, terdapat sekolah guru bawah bagi calon guru SD dan sekolah guru atas bagi calon guru sekolah menengah sebelum keduanya berevolusi menjadi Sekolah Pendidikan Guru (SPG), Pendidikan Guru Agama (PGA), dan seterusnya.

Untuk mengikuti pergeseran kualifikasi formal keguruan, dibukalah fakultas pendidikan di PTN dan swasta, yang kemudian berevolusi menjadi IKIP, Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP), dan sebagainya. Setelah lebih dari tujuh dekade kemerdekaan, kini kita mengenal Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar (PGSD) dan IKIP berevolusi menjadi Universitas Negeri.

Di balik berbagai perkembangan yang cenderung simbolik dan trendi pasca kemerdekaan, salah satu yang luput dari kesadaran kita ialah bahwa telah terjadi apa yang bisa disebut sebagai involusi pendidikan guru–sebab yang melahirkan inkompetensi guru.

Mengapa involusi?

Pertama, konsep vokasional dari pendidikan guru mengandaikan keluaran berupa calon guru yang bisa memfasilitasi pembelajaran sesuai dengan kecakapan yang harus dimiliki siswa. Orientasi dari sistem pendidikannya adalah adanya keterampilan mulai dari mempersiapkan, menyelenggarakan, dan mengevaluasi pembelajaran. Inheren di dalamnya, tentu saja, kecakapan dalam hal materi pembelajaran.

Kenyataannya sekarang, setidaknya sejak tersedianya data hasil uji kompetensi guru dalam satu dekade terakhir, guru-guru yang mendidik anak-anak bangsa ini rata-rata tidak cakap mengajar dan juga tidak cakap dalam materi pelajaran.

Salah satu penjelasan, yang juga ditemukan dalam sitem pendidikan guru di Amerika (Rita Kramer, 1991), ialah bahwa lembaga-lembaga yang seyogianya mendidik para calon guru supaya terampil mengajar terjebak dalam daur kuliah tentang pendidikan dan bukan berlatih secara memadai untuk memfasilitasi pendidikan.

Alhasil, seperti aforisme Konfusius, yang terjadi adalah i hear, i forget–ketidaktahuan karena sistem pembelajaran yang lebih banyak `menguliahi’. Pendidikan guru tidak pernah sampai pada tahap i see i remember, apalagi sampai pada tahap i do i understand–menjadi benar-benar mengerti karena sudah terlatih mempraktikkannya.

Kedua, konsep etis dan liberasi dalam pendidikan guru–yang sudah digagas sejak abad ke-19—mengandaikan keluaran berupa calon-calon guru yang memiliki kesadaran sosial dan mampu menjadi aktor yang mendorong transformasi masyarakat.Faktanya, sebagian besar guru-guru saat ini bermental `pegawai’ (setidaknya berdasarkan data World Bank, 2010), yang sibuk berhitung dengan besaran gaji dan bukan prestasi.

Di sini terjadi pergeseran orientasi pendidikan guru, dari tujuan-tujuan transformatif menjadi sangat fungsional, mekanikal dan ekonomis.

Ketiga, ketika sekolah-sekolah guru pribumi didirikan di awal abad ke-20 oleh berbagai organisasi kemasyarakatan, agama menjadi salah satu driving force bagi perjuangan menuju kemerdekaan. Islam, sebagai contoh, dipahami tidak semata-mata agama ibadah atau hukum, tetapi lebih konkret sebagai agama yang juga mewajibkan penganutnya untuk membebaskan diri dan masyarakat dari tirani penjajahan.

Ketika terjadi pergeseran kondisi real, dari terjajah secara fisik menjadi tidak terjajah, dialektika yang dinamis perlahan-lahan berganti menjadi monolog, yakni menjamur dan mengerasnya suara agama dalam berbagai bentuk wacana dan gerakan yang mengabaikan pluralitas dan interaksi sosial. Ketika ranah pendidikan dimasuki monolog ini, unsur agama dalam pendidikan yang sebelumnya bersifat liberatif berubah menjadi muatanmuatan ideologis yang justru menyebabkan terjadinya involusi.

Pembaruan pendidikan guru

Pembaruan pendidikan guru setidaknya harus mengakhiri ketiga bentuk involusi di atas.Pertama, diperlukan pendidikan guru yang berbasis pada praktikalitas, bukan melulu kuliah-kuliah konseptual.

Kedua, landasan etis keguruan juga hendaknya tidak lagi semata-mata dikuliahkan atau dihapal supaya bisa menjawab soal ujian. Perlu ada sistem pendidikan guru yang memungkinkan terjadinya internalisasi nilai-nilai keguruan–seperti rangkaian kegiatan community service yang memungkinkan dan menjamin terjadinya dialektika antara pengetahuan etis calon guru dengan realitas sosial.

Ketiga, upaya apa pun yang mengarah pada indoktrinasi atas nama ideologi tertentu merupakan virus yang akan merusak keberlangsungan sistem pendidikan guru. Agama, umpamanya, mestilah dipahami dan diterima para calon guru sebagai driving force bagi kohesivitas dan perubahan individu maupun sosial dan bukan sebaliknya menjadi sumber konflik dan tirani.


Selasa, 07 Des 2016 10:19:58 WIB
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